March 21, 2016

Cultural and National Liberation Movement of the Macedonian people


(end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century)

The spring of the national revival of the Macedonians was manifested at the beginning of the 19th century. The main advocate of the Macedonian conscience was the middle class, organized into parishes practising different forms of local self-management. In that respect the Macedonian intellectuals excelled, led by the teachers. During the 60s and 70s the process of national cognizance emerged as a perpetual struggle of the Macedonian middle class for exclusion of the Constantinople Patriarchite representatives and their replacement with the Macedonian ones. Introduction of the Macedonian language into churches and schools was advocated, as well as the renewal of Ohrid Archbishopric as Macedonian independent church. The first printing houses were opened, textbooks and books were written in Macedonian with Old Church Slavic features.

A large number of Macedonian national and cultural revivalists compiled folk songs and created literary and didactic works in local dialects as an affirmation of the Macedonian cultural and national conscience. Among them the most eminent were Yoakim Krchovski, Kiril Peychinovich, Yordan Hadji Konstantinov - Djinot, the brothers Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinov, Kuzman Shapkarev, Grigor Prlichev, Parteniya Zografski and Gjorgjiya Pulevski.

The continuity in the development of the Macedonian conscience was slowed by the ecclesiastical, educational and governmental propaganda of the neighbouring monarchies - Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia. They tried hard to assimilate the nationally revived Macedonian people by means of founding schools and churches and sending teachers and textbooks. The Macedonian people led by the intellectuals opposed the foreign propaganda. Anti-Patriarchite and anti-Exarchate movement was manifested on a massive scale in Macedonia. In the 90s of the 19th century Teodosie, the metropolitan of Skopje, was leading the struggle against the Greek Patriarchite and the Bulgarian Exarchate advocating the establishment of the Macedonian independent church i.e. the renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric.

A Quadrilingual Manual (in Macedonian, Greek, Vlach and Albanian), compiled by Danail Moskopolets, published in Macedonian vernacular in Greek alphabet (Venice, 1802)

"Chasoslov" (a book of sermons), the first Macedonian book printed by Yakov from Kamena Reka (Venice, 1566)

Dimitar Miladinov (1810-1862), Macedonian teacher and a participant in the national revival movement; the organizers of the resistance against the Patriarchate and the Hellenism; he endeavours for the use of the Macedonian language in liturgies and public instruction; he was a compiler of a Macedonian folk songs

Epitaph with an ecclesiastical and educational contents, written by Dimitar Miladinov, in Macedonian vernacular - Ohrid and Struga dialect (Ohrid, 1830)

Gjorgjiya Pulevski (1838 - 1894), a Macedonian textbook writer and a participant in the national revival movement; a supporter of the formation of the unique Macedonian literary language and history; works: "Macedonian Fairy", "The Macedonian Verse Collection", and others; the establisher of the Slavic-Macedonian Association (Sofia, 1888), prohibited by the authorities.

Grigor Prlichev (1830 -1893), a Macedonian poet, a pedagogue and a participant in the national revival movement. For the poem "Serdarot" ("The Sirdar") he won a laurel wreath on the traditional contest in Athens; the antagonist against the Hellenism and the supporter of the Macedonian ecclesiastical and educational work (Works: the poems "Serdarot" (The Sirdar) and "Skenderbeg" (Skender-bey) and the "Autobiography").

Konstantin Miladinov (1830-1862), Macedonian poet and a participant in the national revival movement. He published poetry in his native Struga dialect in the spirit of the Macedonian popular poetry; he also published the miscellany "Popular Songs", compiled together with his brother Dimitar.

"Longing for the South", a song written by Konstantin Miladinov in Macedonian (Ohrid and Struga dialect)

Marko Tsepenkov (1829 -1920), the most prominent collector of folklore compiled and published in 10 books; works: the play "Crne Voyvoda" ("The Dark Duke") and the "Autobiography"

"Ogledalo" ("The Mirror"), written by Kiril Peychinovich, printed in Macedonian - Tetovo dialect, where he endeavours to set up the Macedonian literary language on the popular base (Buda, 1816)

Parteniya Zografski (1818 - 1875), an educator and a textbook writer; the first Macedonian bishop; he supported the formation of the Macedonian literary language based on the South-Western Macedonian dialects; works: "The Brief Ecclesiastical History" (1857), "Elementary Reading Book" (1858).

The Miscellany "Popular Songs" compiled by the brothers Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinovi (Zagreb, 1861), the first systematized large work on the Macedonian folklore compiled on the territory of Macedonia

Rayko Zhinzifov (1839 -1877), a participant in the national revival movement; a poet and a publicist - a Slavophile who published in Russia; an antagonist against the Turkish yoke and the Hellenism; he supported both the independent Macedonian church and the folklore affirmation; the most important of his works are 40 verse collections on national and historical themes.

"Slognica rechovska", the Slavic-Macedonian Grammar written by Gj. Pulevski (1880) concerning the question on Macedonian literary language formation

The municipal church "St. Bogoroditsa" (St. Mary) in Bitola, built in 1871

"Stematografiya", a heraldry, compiled and printed by Hristifor Zhefarovich ( ? - 1753), a well-known printer and a participant in the national revival movement, born in Macedonia. The book was published in Vienna in 1741 and for a long time it was a significant heraldic source of the Balkan nations.

The Appeal from the Bitola parishioners against the Bulgarian Exarchate for non-application of the Article 10 of the Exarchate Statutes concerning the appointment of teachers from the local Macedonian population

The article written by Bolgarski concerning the language used by Yordan Hadji Konstantinov - Djinot, "which differs enormously from the Bulgarian language" and "the essence of the Macedonian language has the variety of features and peculiarities" ("The Constantinople review", 1851)

The Brief Slavic Grammar, written by Grigor Prlichev, in which he suggested the unity of the Slavic language(Constantinople, 1868)The poem "O Armatolos" ("Serdarot"), written by Grigor Prlichev, for which in 1860 in Athens he won laurel wreath and was proclaimed as "the second Homer"

The church "St. Nikola" in Shtip from the 19th century

The coat of arms of Macedonia, 1741

The Demand from the citizens of Bitola concerning their attachment to the Protestant church, as a result of the discontent with the Greek metropolitan Benedict’s behaviour (1868)

The illustration of the Macedonian musical instruments in Mariovo District and the folk song "Marko Engaged Yana", collected by Marko Tsepenkov

The letter written by Parteniya Zografski to Hristo T. informing him about the Greek slanders against Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinov, as well as for the pe;postID=234445352720028986ople’s protest against Meletia, the Greek bishop

The letter written by Teodosie sent to Dionisie (June 20, 1891): "We, the Macedonians do not have troubles with the Turks, but we actually have troubles with the Greeks, the Bulgarians and the Serbs who want to partition Macedonia… The Exarchate in Macedonia executes the most miserable duty, denying the Macedonian name and language…" Teodosie calls: "Macedonians - clerics, rise up against the Patriarchate and the Exarchate and unite yourselves under the protection of the Ohrid Archbishopric, your real mother-church" (Lj. Lape, "Selected Texts", Skopje, 1975)

Add captionThe letter written by the British consul in Salonica, J. Blunt, informing about the appointment of Teodosie metropolitan of Skopje, as well as about the protest of the Greek-Vlachian Community together with the Greek bishop against the activity of Teodosie (April 21, 1890)

The review "The Lighthouse of Macedonia" informs about the welcome of the metropolitan Teodosie pointing out "his perilous activity" against the Hellenism

The metropolitan church "St. Bogoroditsa" in Skopje, built in 1835

The metropolitan of Skopje, Teodosie Gologanov (1846 - 1926), an uncompromising opponent against the ecclesiastical and educational propaganda of both - the Greek Patriarchate and the Bulgarian Exarchate in Macedonia; a supporter of the Ohrid Archbishopric renewal as an independent Macedonian church

The Protest by the citizens of Ohrid against the appointment of a Greek bishop; they threatened to convert into Catholic religion if a popular (Macedonian) bishop would not be appointed ("The Constantinople Review", No. 482, 1860)

The Protest by the Kichevo parishioners concerning the church and the educational independence (1871)

The protest letter by citizens of Shtip against the Greek bishop concerning the demand for the renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric as an independent Macedonian church (1860)

The Slavic-Macedonian General History, written by Gjorgjiya Pulevski (1880) in Macedonian - the beginning of the Macedonian contemporary national historiography

The Trilingual Manual, a dictionary in three languages compiled by Teodosie Sinaitski, published in the first Macedonian printing firm(Salonica, 1841)"Pashalia", written by Yoan Harm from Ohrid, printed in the printing house "Macedonia"(Constantinople, 1869)

Various Teacher’s Instruction, a text-book written by Yoakim Krchovski (Buda, 1819)

Copyright The Archive of MACEDONIA

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