February 28, 2013

The Greek policy towards Macedonia, 19th and 20th century, part 3

The Greek policy towards Macedonia during the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, Risto Poplazarov [Македонска библиотека]

Грчката политика спрема Македонија... Ристо Поплазаров
The complete engagement of the Greek government in the the whole business of the andarism was the main reason to enable the organisation and the realisation. The Greek-Turkish co-operation (towards Macedonia) was the second reason for the very successful course of the andarism. The Greek-Turkish co-operation against the Macedonian people’s liberation movement was expressed through the following things: the Turkish authority allowed the Greek consulates be changed into andar military Headquarters and acted like them; the Greek bands were able to cross the frontier without any problem and could work freely. The Greek cetnik bands had ano- [< page 293] ther previlege. Their activity (their villainy) was not treated as a political crime by the Turkish criminal law and the andars were not also treated by special military courts and no one was sentenced to death. The andarism had supporters among the Turkish beys who were allies against the social revolution. The general govemer in Macedonia, the Turkish Hilmi pasha, was the strongest supporter of the Greek policy and together with other governmental officals helped the andarism. That was admitted by Greek andar leaders and historians.
The Greek-Turkish co-operation resulted from the mutual interest and the aims of the two partners. They aimed to liauidate the Macedonian people’s liberation movement, and wanted, through a revolution many basic social, political as well as governmental problems to be solved.

The previous andar actions, the war from 1897 and other events showed that Greece was not powerful enough to conquer Macedonia or a part of it. The Greek politicians were sure that the Turkish domination in Macedonia did not only trouble them but much more they felt thev needed the Turkish co-operation. The Turkish politicians knew that one of the main aims of the andarism was to prepare a suitable area for annexing as big part of Macedonia as the Greeks could, but the Turkish thought it was less evil than the one which was the result of the Greek co-operation with the other Balkan countries against Turkey. Therefore Turkey, with German help, kept Greece on its side and helped or tolerate the andarism.

From the above mentioned we could see the motives for the Greater Greek andar intervention in Macedonia and its main aims. The Greek and other Balkan rulers saw the significance the Macedonian masses gave the Ilinden rising (the declaration of the Kruševo Republik. the socialist characteristics. the people sticking together, the free minded ideas ...) as also some of the conseouences from it (the reforms for separation Macedonia) could destroy the results of the Greek and other governmental propagandas and unabled the Balkan monarchies rule Macedonia. The Greater Bulgarian interfering into Macedonia also influenced the organisation of the andarism. The Bulgarians declared it as "the Bulgarian act". A bier influence in the realisation of the armed propagandas had the formation of the administrative totalities regarding the "the ethnic principle". One of the main aims of the andarism. resulted from such an opinion was the formation of the "Greek ethnic totalities" which would be gained by sub- [< page 294] jecting the population to the Patriarchate or the Greek influence in general. Regarding this and the main aim i.e. to provide good conditions for annexing as big part of Macedonia as possible the Greek rulers forced their bands undertake everyday fights in order to lessen the revolutionary forces of the Macedonian people, formed local and andar centres (organisations) and subjected the population to their rule with weapons and corruption. On the other hand the andarism and the other četnik intervention showed that the Balkan monarchies lost confidence in the suitableness and the efficiency of their "legal" propagandas. They considered the andarism more efficent means for the realisation of their greater aspirations. And when they did not succeed in that they declared a war as the most efficent means.

The andar bands were active in two thirds of the territory of Macedonia. The north boundary of this territory, with small exceptions, was almost the same with the line fixed with "the minimum programme" of the Greater Greek apetities in Macedonia. The andar bands were active in two main zones in the Bitola vilayet: Kostur-Lerin and Prespa. The bands imposed the biggest terror on the regions Kostenarija and Korešta while in the Bitola-Mariovo-Prilep zone it was mostly felt on the region of Buf-kol, the villages around Gradištica and many others in Mariovo and Prilep. In Kostursko-Lerin zone about 40 andar bands were active from 1904 to 1908 from which more than 15 were formed in 1905 and then they did the cruelest mass murder. The Greek četnik bands undertook the greatest number of the terroristic actions in Kostanarija, Mariovo and other regions. More than 30 bands were active in Bitolsko-Mariovsko-Prilepsko zone where the villages Živovo, Iveni and others were mostly plundered. The andar bands attacked Smilevo too and made attempts for spreading their influence in Ohrid region as well. The following Macedonian revolurionary voivodas were most outstanding in the struggle against the andarism: P. Kljašev, M. Vlaat, K. Blacki, A. Kršanov, K. Dobrolicki, N. Popov, G. Sugarev, K. Germov, Sole Stojčev, K. Ljondev, A. Turundzev and others.
The andar bands were active in 6 zones in the Salonika vilayet: in Bersko-Negusko-Vodensko (where there were more than 10 andar bands). Regarding the Salonika vilayet the Macedonian revolutionaries had the most intensified struggle in the Enidzevardarsko-Pejak-Gumendze zone and especially at the Enidzevardarsko Lake (now dried up). The revolutionary band led by Apostol Petkov Terziev, Karatošo and others were mostly distinquished in the struggle against more than 20 [< page 295]  andar bands. About 10 andar bands were active on the territory of Strumicko-Gevgelisko-Dojransko zone but without special result because there the Greater Bulgarian and the Greater Serbian propagandas were mostly felt. The andarism was not so strong in the Salonika-Kukuško-Lagadinsko zone. The Greater Greek propaganda formed two zones in the Ser sanjak. Sersko-Demirhisarsko zone was the second province where 15 bands were active. These bands were formed mainly from the local residents (četnik and voivodas) and they compelled the population stay "loyal" to the Patriarchate. The andarism was spread over Nevrokopsko and Melnicko from here. In the fartherst part Dramsko-Kavalsko zone the Greater Greek propaganda formed so called "peasant quards" with the help of terrorists and corruption. One of the characteristics of the andarism in Ser sanjak and in Enidzevardarsko... was the fact that it was helped and tolerated by the local Turkish authority and the beys. The andarism was led by the Greek consulate in Ser sanjak (in Seres) in Kavala it was led by the subconsulate; while in Drama by the metropolitan bishop. The andars did the biggest massacre in Macedonia in Dolno Karadzovo, Sersko in 1906. The struggle of the progressive Macedonian revolutionaries, called Sandanists, was the most distinquished against the Greek armed intervention in Ser sanjak.

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